The thyroid gland, located at the front of your neck, produces hormones that affect almost all of your body’s metabolic processes. When the gland over-produces hormones -- a condition called hyperthyroidism -- you can experience problems ranging from benign neck nodules to a potentially serious autoimmune disease.
Though it is quite rare, some people develop cancer of the thyroid gland, a condition that may require removal of the gland. If the thyroid gland has become so enlarged that it is difficult for you to swallow or breathe, or if you cannot take certain medicines used to treat hyperthyroidism, your doctor may recommend partial or complete removal of the gland.
The parathyroids are small glands that control the amount of calcium in your bones and blood. If these glands over- produce the parathyroid hormone — a condition called hyperparathyroidism -- your calcium levels can skyrocket, and cause you to experience frequent and premature fractures, bone pain, fatigue, gastric reflux, kidney stones and/or high blood pressure.
If you develop hyperparathyroidism, your doctor may recommend surgical removal of the abnormal gland so that your body can recover the calcium it lost.